One decision-making theory or model is described as Cognitive. This theory is a non-statistical, context related process that is similar to a time-consuming and context dependent problem solving process.
Research and conclusions in the area of decision-making draw on fields such as philosophy, cognitive science, developmental studies, and neuro-science.
Decision-making is the central activity for both leaders and managers. Since managing and leading are different, perhaps a simple definition of each would be helpful: Managing is “Doing things right” and leading is “Doing the right things”. Leaders have a goal of creating an innovative environment that will include mistakes, and managers have a goal of reducing and eliminating mistakes and waste.
The decision maker must incorporate perspectives including the organizational, environmental, historical, political, and psychological aspects of the problem into the process. Different managers or leaders make different decisions because we all have different experiences and unique backgrounds. Every experience in life shapes our mind in a unique way. As humans, we experience the world in our own ways and therefore adding different ingredients into our decision-making took kit. Models are useful but, reality must take precedence over the decision model, because reality cannot be fooled.
Another aspect of decision-making that requires attention is communication skills. We must also focus on communicating the results and recommendations to achieve a consensus concerning an acceptable course of action. When communicating a decision, the process should be explained and include the reasoning, planning, judgment, perceptions, awareness, and learning involved in the process.
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